Until the Year 2005

Machelska H, Cabot PJ, Mousa SA, Zhang Q, Stein C.
Pain control in inflammation governed by selectins.
Nature Med 1998; 4:1425-1428.
Lewin GR, Moshourab R. . 2004;61:30-44.
Mechanosensation and pain.
J Neurobiol 2004; 60:33-44.
Rittner HL, Machelska H, Stein C.
Leukocytes in the regulation of pain and analgesia.
J Leukoc Biol 2005; 78(6):1215-22.
Stein C, Schäfer M, Machelska H.
Attacking pain at its source: new perspectives on opioids.
Nat Med 2003; 9:1003-1008.
Pühler W, Zöllner C, Brack A, Shaqura MA, Krause H, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Rapid upregulation of mu opioid receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia in response to peripheral inflammation depends on neuronal conduction.
Neuroscience 2004; 129:473-479.
Binder W, Mousa SA, Sitte N, Kaiser M, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Sympathetic activation triggers endogenous opioid release and analgesia within peripheral inflamed tissue.
Eur J Neurosci 2004; 20:92-100.
Cabot PJ, Carter L, Gaiddon C, Zhang Q, Schäfer M, Loeffler JP, Stein C.
Immune cell-derived beta-endorphin. Production, release, and control of inflammatory pain in rats.
J Clin Invest 1997; 100:142-148.
Oeltjenbruns J, Schäfer M.
Potential applications and significance of peripheral opioid analgesia.
Schmerz 2005; 19(5):447-52, 454-5.
Mousa SA, Shakibaei M, Sitte N, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain.
Endocrinology 2004; 145:1331-1341.
Cabot PJ, Carter L, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Methionine-Enkephalin- and Dynorphin A-release from immune cells and control of inflammatory pain.
Pain 2001; 93(3):207-212.
Brack A, Rittner HL, Schäfer M.
Critical reevaluation of cyclooxygenase two inhibitors in perioperative pain therapy.
Anaesthesist 2005; 54(10):1032-6, 1038.
Brack A, Rittner HL, Machelska H, Leder K, Mousa SA, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Control of inflammatory pain by chemokine-mediated recruitment of opioid-containing polymorphonuclear cells.
Pain 2004; 112(3):229-38.
Mousa SA, Bopaiah CP, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Involvement of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor subtypes 1 and 2 in peripheral opioid-mediated inhibition of inflammatory pain.
Pain 2003; 106(3):297-307.
Kopf A, Bätjer N.
Pain management in gastrointestinal oncology.
Z Gastroenterol 2005; 43(9):1061-9.
Hartmann B, Ahmadi S, Heppenstall PA, Lewin GR, Schott C, Borchardt T, Seeburg PH, Zeilhofer HU, Sprengel R, Kuner R.
The AMPA receptor subunits GluR-A and GluR-B reciprocally modulate spinal synaptic plasticity and inflammatory pain.
Neuron 2004; 44(4):637-50.
Machelska H, Heppenstall PA, Stein C.
Breaking the pain barrier.
Nat Med 2003; 9(11):1353-4.
Schostak M, Matischak K, Müller M, Schäfer M, Schrader M, Christoph F, Miller K.
New perioperative management reduces bleeding in radical retropubic prostatectomy..
BJU Int 2005; 96(3):316-9.
Adolphs J, Schmidt DK, Korsukewitz I, Kamin B, Habazettl H, Schäfer M, Welte M.
Effects of thoracic epidural anaesthesia on intestinal microvascular perfusion in a rodent model of normotensive endotoxaemia.
Intensive Care Med 2004; 30(11):2094-101.
Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, Allen RR, Argoff CR, Bennett GJ, Bushnell MC, Farrar JT, Galer BS, Haythornthwaite JA, Hewitt DJ, Loeser JD, Max MB, Saltarelli M, Schmader KE, Stein C, Thompson D, Turk DC, Wallace MS, Watkins LR, Weinstein SM.
Advances in neuropathic pain: diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations.
Arch Neurol 2003; 60(11):1524-34.
Likar R, Schäfer M, Trampitsch E, Breschan C, Sittll R, Gaggl A, Stein C.
Topical application of local anesthetics and opioids after elective tooth extraction.
Schmerz 2005; 19(3):195-8.
Brack A, Rittner HL, Stein C.
Neurogenic painful inflammation.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2004; 17(5):461-4.
Rittner HL, Brack A, Stein C.
Pro-algesic versus analgesic actions of immune cells.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2003; 16(5):527-33.
Kopf A, Banzhaf A, Stein C.
Perioperative management of the chronic pain patient.
Kopf A, Banzhaf A, Stein C. 2005; 19(1):59-76.
Likar R, Mousa SA, Philippitsch G, Steinkellner H, Koppert W, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Increased numbers of opioid expressing inflammatory cells do not affect intra-articular morphine analgesia.
Br J Anaesth 2004; 93(3):375-80.
Adolphs J, Schmidt DK, Mousa SA, Kamin B, Korsukewitz I, Habazettl H, Schäfer M, Welte M.
Thoracic epidural anesthesia attenuates hemorrhage-induced impairment of intestinal perfusion in rats.
Anesthesiology 2003; 99(3):685-92.
Puehler W, Brack A, Kopf A.
Extensive abscess formation after repeated paravertebral injections for the treatment of chronic back pain.
Pain 2005; 113(3):427-9.
Hellwig N, Plant TD, Janson W, Schäfer M, Schultz G, Schaefer M.
TRPV1 acts as proton channel to induce acidification in nociceptive neurons.
J Biol Chem 2004; 297(33):34553-61.
Machelska H, Schopohl JK, Mousa SA, Labuz D, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Different mechanisms of intrinsic pain inhibition in early and late inflammation.
J Neuroimmunol 2003; 141(1-2):30-9.
Oeltjenbruns J, Schäfer M.
Peripheral opioid analgesia: clinical applications.
Curr Pain Headache Rep 2005; 9(1):36-44.
Brack A, Labuz D, Schiltz A, Rittner HL, Machelska H, Schäfer M, Reszka R, Stein C.
Tissue monocytes/macrophages in inflammation: hyperalgesia versus opioid-mediated peripheral antinociception.
Anesthesiology 2004; 101(1):204-11.
Zöllner C, Shaqura MA, Bopaiah CP, Mousa S, Stein C, Schafer M.
Painful inflammation-induced increase in mu-opioid receptor binding and G-protein coupling in primary afferent neurons.
Mol Pharmacol 2003; 64(2):202-10.
Richter H, Hollenberg S, Sachs HJ, Oeltjenbruns J, Weimann J.
Hydrofluoric acid burns. A rare chemical emergency situation.
Anaesthesist 2005; 54(2):123-6.
Machelska H, Brack A, Mousa SA, Schopohl JK, Rittner HL, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Selectins and integrins but not platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 regulate opioid inhibition of inflammatory pain.
Br J Pharmacol 2004; 142(4):772-80.
Janson W, Stein C.
Peripheral opioid analgesia.
Janson W, Stein C. 2003; 4(4):270-4.
Adolphs J, Schmitt TK, Schmidt DK, Mousa S, Welte M, Habazettl H, Schafer M.
Evaluation of sympathetic blockade after intrathecal and epidural lidocaine in rats by laser Doppler perfusion imaging.
Eur Surg Res 2005; 37(1):50-9.
Brack A, Böttiger BW, Schäfer M.
New insights in postoperative pain therapy.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2004; 39(3):157-64.
Kopf A, Janson W, Stein C.
Opioid therapy in chronic non-malignant pain.
Anaesthesist 2003; 52(2):103-14.
Brack A, Rittner HL, Schäfer M.
Non-opioid analgesics for perioperative pain therapy. Risks and rational basis for use.
Anaesthesist 2004; 53(3):263-80.
Schmitt TK, Mousa SA, Brack A, Schmidt DK, Rittner HL, Welte M, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Modulation of peripheral endogenous opioid analgesia by central afferent blockade.
Anesthesiology 2003; 98(1):195-202.
Brack A, Rittner HL, Machelska H, Shaqura M, Mousa SA, Labuz D, Zöllner C, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Endogenous peripheral antinociception in early inflammation is not limited by the number of opioid-containing leukocytes but by opioid receptor expression.
Pain 2004; 108(1-2):67-75.
Stein C.
Opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons.
Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 521:69-76.
Shaqura MA, Zöllner C, Mousa SA, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Characterization of mu opioid receptor binding and G protein coupling in rat hypothalamus, spinal cord, and primary afferent neurons during inflammatory pain.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2004; 308(2):712-8.
Machelska H.
Functional evidence of pain control by the immune system.
Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 521(1):88-97.
Brack A, Rittner HL, Machelska H, Beschmann K, Sitte N, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Mobilization of opioid-containing polymorphonuclear cells by hematopoietic growth factors and influence on inflammatory pain.
Anesthesiology 2004; 100(1):149-57.
Mousa SA.
Morphological correlates of immune-mediated peripheral opioid analgesia.
Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 521:77-87.
Schäfer M.
Cytokines and peripheral analgesia.
Adv Exp Med Biol 2003; 521:40-50.
Machelska H, Stein C.
Immune mechanisms in pain control.
Anesth Analg 2002; 95(4):1002-8.
Machelska H, Mousa SA, Brack A, Schopohl JK, Rittner HL, Schafer M, Stein C.
Opioid control of inflammatory pain regulated by intercellular adhesion molecule-1.
J Neurosci 2002; 22(13):5588-96.
Sorgatz H, Hege-Scheuing G, Kopf A, Maier C, Sabatowski R, Schäfer M, Stein C, Tölle TR, Willweber-Strumpf A; German chapter of the Innternational Association for the Study of Pain.
Consensus building on "Long-term opioid administration and non-tumor pain".
Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 2002; 96(5):317-23.
Mousa SA, Machelska H, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Immunohistochemical localization of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 in immune cells and spinal cord in a model of inflammatory pain.
J Neuroimmunol 2002; 126(1-2):5-15.
Stein C, Machelska H, Schäfer M.
Peripheral analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of opioids..
Stein C, Machelska H, Schäfer M. 2001; 60(6):416-24.
Rittner HL, Brack A, Machelska H, Mousa SA, Bauer M, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Opioid peptide-expressing leukocytes: identification, recruitment, and simultaneously increasing inhibition of inflammatory pain..
Anesthesiology 2001; 95(2):500-8.
Binder W, Machelska H, Mousa S, Schmitt T, Rivière PJ, Junien JL, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Analgesic and antiinflammatory effects of two novel kappa-opioid peptides..
Anesthesiology 2001; 94(6):1034-44.
Likar R, Koppert W, Blatnig H, Chiari F, Sittl R, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Efficacy of peripheral morphine analgesia in inflamed, non-inflamed and perineural tissue of dental surgery patients..
J Pain Symptom Manage 2001; 21(4):330-7.
Likar R, Schäfer M, Stein C.
New scientific findings on peripheral opioid receptors.
Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2001; 36(3):177-8.
Stein C, Machelska H, Binder W, Schäfer M.
Peripheral opioid analgesia..
Curr Opin Pharmacol 2001; 1(1):62-5.
Stein C, Schäfer M, Machelska H.
Why is morphine not the ultimate analgesic and what can be done to improve it?.
J Pain 2000; 3:51-6.
Mousa SA, Machelska H, Schäfer M, Stein C.
Co-expression of beta-endorphin with adhesion molecules in a model of inflammatory pain..
J Neuroimmunol 2000; 108(1-2):160-70.
Machelska H, Stein C.
Pain control by immune-derived opioids..
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2000; 27(7):533-6.
Stein A, Yassouridis A, Szopko C, Helmke K, Stein C.
Intraarticular morphine versus dexamethasone in chronic arthritis..
Pain 1999; 83(3):525-32.
Schäfer M.
Peripheral opioid analgesia: from experimental to clinical studies..
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 1999; 12(5):603-7.
Likar R, Kapral S, Steinkellner H, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Dose-dependency of intra-articular morphine analgesia..
Br J Anaesth 1999; 83(2):241-4.
Machelska H, Pflüger M, Weber W, Piranvisseh-Völk M, Daubert JD, Dehaven R, Stein C.
Peripheral effects of the kappa-opioid agonist EMD 61753 on pain and inflammation in rats and humans..
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 290(1):354-61.
Likar R, Sittl R, Gragger K, Pipam W, Blatnig H, Breschan C, Schalk HV, Stein C, Schäfer M.
Peripheral morphine analgesia in dental surgery..
Pain 1998; 76(1-2):145-50.
Schäfer M, Stein C.
The sympathetic nervous system and pain.
Anaesthesist 1998; 47(1):2-3.